金沙娱乐

净化财富的脏乱秘密,词汇解析

四月 2nd, 2019  |  金沙娱乐

原标题:【国际】泰王国拟对使用区块链发电售电收取额外资费

本期原来的小说选自The Economist 2017-0二-25的文章Clean energy’s dirty
secret,释义来自澳大利亚国立高阶7版、有道词典等财富。若是你也在念书The
Economist,欢迎订阅作者的文集The
Economist,一起上学交换。

翻译按:任何贰个行业的革命都会受到既有势力的阻止。读完本文,你将精通到净化能源为什么不可能即时取代旧财富的几个原因,以及恐怕的解决方案——政党的参加和调节。
正文译自《经济学人》一月二二1117日刊。

By ANGUS McNEICE | China Daily | Updated: 2017-10-05 17:44

泰王国主任起草的新法律须求向使用区块链技术的电力生产商收取额外开销。

Clean energy’s dirty secret

The renewables【1】 revolution is wrecking【2】 the
world’s electricity markets. Here’s what to do

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Solar power projects, such as this one shaped like giant pandas in
Datong, Shanxi province, are now a common sight.

据《日经音讯亚洲评价》广播发表,泰王国发电局(EGAT)供给支付那笔开支作为区块链技术带来的潜在影响的补贴。

【一】renewables 可再生财富

军事学人封面

前几天,类似于图中的黑龙江滨州的大华熊形状的太阳能发电项目早就很普遍了。

ERC成员Viraphol Jirapraditkul表示:

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Clean energy’s dirty secret

The renewables revolution is wrecking the world’s electricity markets.
Here’s what to do

  1. ALMOST 150 years after photovoltaic cells and wind turbines
    were invented, they still generate only 7% of the world’s
    electricity. Yet something remarkable is happening. From being
    peripheral to
    the energy system just over a decade ago, they are
    now growing faster than any other energy source and their falling
    costs are making them competitive with fossil fuels. BP, an oil
    firm, expects renewables to account for half of the growth in global
    energy supply over the next 20 years. It is no longer far-fetched
    to think
    that the world is entering an era of clean, unlimited and
    cheap power. About time, too.

being peripheral to: not as important as other things or people in
a particular activity, idea, or situation
e.g. The romance is peripheral to the main plot of the movie.
competitive: as good as or better than others
far-fetched: extremely unlikely to be true or to happen
e.g. The whole story sounds very far-fetched.

1)光伏电池和风涡轮机表明大致150年后,他们依旧只发生世界七%的电力。可是,一些值得注意的事体正在产生。十几年前还处于能源体系的外围,它们以往的增速超越其余其余能源,它们下跌的本金使其和化石燃料1样有竞争力
BP,一家原油集团,估摸可再生财富将占今后20年天下财富供应增进的2/四。世界正在进入3个清洁,Infiniti和廉价电力的一时半刻不再是疑心的。也是时刻难点。

  1. There is a 20trn dollars hitch, though. To get from here to
    there requires huge amounts of investment over the next few decades,
    to replace old smog-belching power plants and to upgrade the
    pylons and wires that bring electricity to consumers. Normally
    investors like putting their money into electricity because it
    offers reliable returns. Yet green energy has a dirty secret. The
    more it is deployed, the more it lowers the price of power from any
    source. That makes it hard to manage the transition to a carbon-free
    future, during which many generating technologies, clean and dirty,
    need to remain profitable if the lights are to stay on. Unless the
    market is fixed, subsidies to the industry will only grow.

hitch: a small problem that makes something difficult or delays it
for a short time
净化财富的脏乱秘密,词汇解析。e.g. In spite of some technical hitches, the first program was a
success.
e.g. The whole show went without a hitch .

贰)然则,有七个20万亿台币的小问题。从今天到今后亟需在今后几拾年大批量的投资,以取代旧的喷出平流雾的发电厂和升级换代给消费者带来电的电缆塔和电缆。常常投资者喜欢把钱投入电力,因为它提供可相信的回报。可是,芙蓉红能源有三个龌龊的潜在。它配置得越来越多,它就会让来自其余来源的电力价格降低越来越多。那使得通向无碳的前程的衔接难以决定,在那之间,借使要让灯继续发光的话,许多致电技术,无论清洁依然污染,必要保持盈利。除非市集是永恒的,不然对行业的津贴只会提升。

  1. Policymakers are already seeing this inconvenient truth as a
    reason to put the brakes on renewable energy. In parts of Europe
    and China, investment in renewables is slowing as subsidies are
    cut back. However, the solution is not less wind and solar. It
    is to rethink how the world prices clean energy in order to make
    better use of it.

An inconvenient
truth
是一部关于天气变化和中外变暖的纪录片,维基上译作《难以忽视的精神》——译者注
put the brakes on sth: to stop something that is happening
cut back: If you cut back something such as expenditure or cut
back on it, you reduce it.
e.g. The Government has cut back on defence spending.

三)政策制定者已经把那么些尴尬的实质看作停止可再生财富的二个缘故。在欧洲和九州的1对地面,可再生能源的投资正在缓慢,因为补贴被削减。然则,化解方案不是更少的风和太阳能。而是重新思考世界怎么为清新能源定价,以便更好地动用它。

Shock to the system

  1. At its heart, the problem is that government-supported renewable
    energy has been imposed on a market designed in a different era.
    For much of the 20th century, electricity was made and moved by
    vertically integrated, state-controlled monopolies. From the 1980s
    onwards, many of these were broken up, privatised and liberalised,
    so that market forces could determine where best to invest. Today
    only about 6% of electricity users get their power from monopolies.
    Yet everywhere the pressure to decarbonise power supply has
    brought the state creeping back into markets. This is disruptive
    for three reasons. The first is the subsidy system itself. The other
    two are inherent to the nature of wind and solar: their
    intermittency and their very low running costs. All three help
    explain why power prices are low and public subsidies are
    addictive
    .
    四)其核心难题是,政党支持的可再生财富已经被强加到八个见仁见智时代设计出的商海。在20世纪的多数时候,电力是由垂直整合的、国有控制股份的独占公司创立和平运动输的。从20世纪80年间初始,在那之中许多总揽被打破,被私有化和自由化,使市镇力量能够决定最好投资趋势。明日唯有约6%的电力用户从垄断公司获得他们的电力。可是,处处去碳电力供应的压力壹度使得国家幕后潜回市集。那是破坏性的,有多少个原因。第二是补贴制度自作者。其余三个是风和太阳的习性固有的:它们的间歇性和它们非常的低的周转费用。那八个原因扶助分解了为什么电力价格低和集体补贴停不下来

  2. First, the splurge of public subsidy, of about 800bn dollars
    since 2008, has distorted the market. It came about for noble
    reasons—to counter climate change and prime the pump for new,
    costly technologies, including wind turbines and solar panels. But
    subsidies hit just as electricity consumption in the rich world
    was stagnating because of growing energy efficiency and the
    financial crisis. The result was a glut of power-generating
    capacity that has slashed the revenues utilities earn from
    wholesale power markets and hence deterred investment.

prime the pump: to encourage a business, industry, or activity to
develop by putting money or effort into it
slash: to greatly reduce an amount, price etc = cut
e.g. The workforce has been slashed by 50%.

伍)首先,公共补贴的“挥霍”,自二〇〇九年来说约为柒仟亿美金,扭曲了集镇。它是出于高雅的理由——为了对抗天气变化和鞭策提升新的、昂贵的技能,包涵风力涡轮机和太阳电池板。不过,由于财富功能的不止抓实和金融危害的熏陶,富裕国家的电力消耗抱残守缺,补贴就在此时出现。结果导致过量的发电能力,大幅缩减了电力服务公司从科学普及电力市镇赢得的收益,从而阻碍了投资。

  1. Second, green power is intermittent. The vagaries of wind and
    sun—especially in countries without favourable weather—mean that
    turbines and solar panels generate electricity only part of the
    time. To keep power flowing, the system relies on conventional power
    plants, such as coal, gas or nuclear, to kick in when renewables
    falter. But because they are idle for long periods, they
    find it harder to attract private investors. So, to keep the lights
    on, they require public funds.

kick in: If something kicks in, it begins to take effect.
e.g. As discounts kicked in, bookings for immediate travel rose by
15%.
falter: to become weaker and unable to continue in an effective
way
e.g. The economy is showing signs of faltering.
idle: not working or producing anything ≠ busy
e.g. The workers have been idle for the last six months.

六)其次,卡其灰电源断断续续。风和阳光的风云突变——
特别是在未有适当天气的国家——意味着涡轮机和太阳电池板仅在有个别光阴致电。为了维持电力流动,系统依靠常规的发电站,例如煤、原油或核能,在可再生财富减弱起到效益。可是因为她俩长久高居空闲状态,他们发觉很难吸引私人投资者。所以,为了保险灯亮着,他们须要国有开销。

  1. Everyone is affected by a third factor: renewable energy has
    negligible or zero marginal running costs—because the wind and
    the sun are free. In a market that prefers energy produced at the
    lowest short-term cost, wind and solar take business from providers
    that are more expensive to run, such as coal plants, depressing
    power prices, and hence revenues for all.
    7)种种人都饱受第三个成分的影响:可再生能源具有可忽略的只怕是零边界运维花费——因为风和日光是免费的。在二个赞成于以压低长时间资金生生产能力源的市镇中,风能和太阳能从运营开销更高的提供商(如燃煤电厂)这里拿走生意,降低电价,从而下降了全体人的进项。

Get smart

  1. The higher the penetration of renewables, the worse these
    problems get—especially in saturated markets. In Europe, which
    was first to feel the effects, utilities have suffered a “lost
    decade” of falling returns, stranded assets and corporate
    disruption. Last year, Germany’s two biggest electricity providers,
    E.ON and RWE, both split in two. In renewable-rich parts of America
    power providers struggle to find investors for new plants. Places
    with an abundance of wind, such as China, are curtailing wind
    farms to keep coal plants in business.

捌)可再生财富的渗透率越高,这几个题材越严重——越发是在饱和市镇。在首先感受到影响的亚洲,电力服务集团受到了收益下跌、资金财产搁浅和商社瓦解的“失去的十年”。二〇一八年,德意志联邦共和国两大电力供应商E.ON和奥迪Q3WE两家都分拆成两家。在美利坚合众国可再生能源丰盛的地域,电力供应商很难找到新工厂的投资者。拥有大批量风力的地点,比如中华,正在削减风力发电站,以让燃煤电厂有事情可做。

  1. The corollary is that the electricity system is being
    re-regulated as investment goes chiefly to areas that benefit from
    public support. Paradoxically, that means the more states support
    renewables, the more they pay for conventional power plants, too,
    using “capacity payments” to alleviate intermittency. In effect,
    politicians rather than markets are once again deciding how to avoid
    blackouts. They often make mistakes: Germany’s support for
    cheap, dirty lignite caused emissions to rise, notwithstanding
    huge subsidies for renewables. Without a new approach the renewables
    revolution will stall.

9)推论是,电力系统正在被重复调整,因为投资关键去往受益于集体支撑的世界。争执的是,那意味支持可再生财富的国度越来越多,他们为健康发电厂支付的也愈多,来行使“体量支付”来化解间歇性。实际上,法学家而不是市集重新决定怎样制止停电。他们不时犯错误:德意志对方便、脏的褐煤的帮忙引起排放量回升,就算其对可再生财富提供多量补贴。未有1种新的情势,可再生财富革命将熄火

  1. The good news is that new technology can help fix the problem.
    Digitalisation, smart meters and batteries are enabling companies
    and households to smooth out their demand—by doing some
    energy-intensive work at night, for example. This helps to cope with
    intermittent supply. Small, modular power plants, which are easy to
    flex up or down, are becoming more popular, as are high-voltage
    grids that can move excess power around the network more
    efficiently.

smooth out: If you smooth out a problem or difficulty, you solve
it, especially by talking to the people concerned.
e.g. It’s O.K. I smoothed things out.

10)好音讯是,新技巧能够扶助消除那个题材。数字化,智能电衡量提示仪表和电池使公司和家园能够解决她们的须要——例如在夜间做一些财富密集型的行事。那促进应对间歇性供应。小型、模块化的发发电站,不难利落调节生产能力,变得愈加受欢迎,高压电力网也足以更实惠地在网络上传输多余的电力。

  1. The bigger task is to redesign power markets to reflect the new need
    for flexible supply and demand. They should adjust prices more
    frequently, to reflect the fluctuations of the weather. At times of
    extreme scarcity, a high fixed price could kick in to prevent
    blackouts. Markets should reward those willing to use less
    electricity to balance the grid, just as they reward those who
    generate more of it. Bills could be structured to be higher or lower
    depending how strongly a customer wanted guaranteed power all the
    time—a bit like an insurance policy. In short, policymakers should
    be clear they have a problem and that the cause is not renewable
    energy, but the out-of-date system of electricity pricing. Then they
    should fix it.
    1一)更大的天职是重复设计电力商场,以展示对灵活供应和须要的新要求。他们应该更频仍地调价,以展示气候的动乱。在极其稀罕的时候,高固定价格能够起效果来堵住停电。市集应该奖励愿意利用更少的电力的人来抵消电力网,正如他们奖励那多少个产生更加多电力的人。账单能够被组织变为更高或更低,那取决于客户多么强烈地期待从来保障电力供应——有点像保单。由此可知,政策制定者应该了然,他们有标题,原因不是可再生能源,而是过时的电价制度。然后他们应该化解它。

初稿出处:历史学人杂志

译者:七呵夫

本译文仅供个人研习、欣赏语言之用,谢绝任何转发及用于其它商业用途。本译文所涉法律后果均由本身承担。本身同意简书平台在接获有关文章权人的打招呼后,删除小说。

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家用阳光能屋顶发电机的数量正在快速增多。那正是能源禁锢理委员会员会(E瑞虎C)要求制定对各个人都公平拘押的来头。

【2】wreck破坏,毁坏

China accounted for more than 40 percent of capacity growth in global
renewable energy in 2016, which was a record year for worldwide clean
energy additions, according to a new study.

越多的泰王国集团动用分布式账本技术(DLT)支持房主从屋顶太阳能系统中赚取。新一代区块链消费者通过在疏散的点对点(p二p)财富市集上买卖剩余的太阳能电力财富,致使该国国有公用事业利润锐减。

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二〇一五年,中夏族民共和国承受了多于五分二的全球可再生能源,依照一项新的上学展现,那是1项全世界黄铜色财富合成物的笔录。

换句话说,随着市集规模的扩充,直接从国营公用事业集团购销的电力减弱,那意味着守旧电力行业的净收入缩短。

ALMOST 150 years after photovoltaic cells【3】 and wind
turbines【4】
were invented, they still generate only 7% of the
world’s electricity. Yet something remarkable is happening. From being
peripheral to the energy system just over a decade ago, they are now
growing faster than any other energy source and their falling costs
are making them competitive with fossil fuels【5】. BP, an oil
firm, expects renewables to account for half of the growth in global
energy supply over the next 20 years. It is no longer
far-fetched【6】 to think that the world is entering an era of
clean, unlimited and cheap power. About time, too.

The International Energy Agency, a Paris-based policy advisory
organization also known as the IEA, found that renewables accounted for
almost two-thirds of new power capacity last year. For the first time,
solar additions rose faster than any other fuel, including coal.

就在一年前,泰王国还遗弃了对非政党太阳能发电的严酷限制。据《布宜诺斯Ellis邮报》广播发表,泰国政坛允许家庭和集团二零一八年3月将太阳能电池板发生的剩余能量出售给EGAT,但只怕当初并从未料到p二p财富社区会那样火速地行使区块链技术呢。

【3】photovoltaic cell光伏电池

国际财富代理中央(IEA),一家在开办在法国巴黎的问话公司,发现可再生产资料源占新能源的半数。有史以来第一回,太阳能合成物发展的比包含煤炭在内的别的燃料快。

英文原来的文章

【肆】wind turbine风力涡轮机

Last year, new solar capacity around the world grew by 50 percent,
reaching more than 74 gigawatts, with China accounting for almost half
of that expansion. China is also the world market leader in hydropower,
bioenergy for electricity and heat, and electric vehicles.

New regulations drafted by Thailand officials demand that electricity
producers using blockchain be charged additional fees. Government
regulators fear an explosion in independent power generation will lead
to a reduction in revenue.

【5】fossil fuel化石燃料,矿物燃料

二〇一八年,全世界太阳能体积增加了二分之一,在中华夏族民共和国担当了左近的伍分之3的能量增加的情形下达到并超过7四千兆瓦。同时中华夏族民共和国也是天底下用水力和生物能发电,热,和电力交通工具市集的老董。

Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand (EGAT) has demanded the
fees be paid as a subsidy for potentially destabilizing effects
blockchain technology brings, Nikkei Asian Review reports.

金沙娱乐,【6】far-fetched 牵强附会,难以置信的

Fatih Birol, executive director of the IEA, estimates that renewable
capacity will grow by about 1,000 GW-or half the current global
capacity in coal power-by 2022.

“The number of household solar rooftop power generators is increasing
rapidly. That’s why the Energy Regulatory Commission (ERC) needs to
develop regulation that is fair for everybody,” declared ERC member
Viraphol Jirapraditkul.

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IEA的执行总管Fatih
Birol估算在2022年可再生产资料源覆盖面能够加强十亿沃特t,或然今后全球用煤量的拾分之5。

There is a growing number of Thai companies leveraging distributed
ledger technology (DLT) to help homeowners profit from rooftop solar
systems. A new generation of blockchain-savvy consumers is muscling the
state-owned utilities out of profits by buying and selling surplus solar
energy on decentralized peer-to-peer (p2p) energy markets.

There is a $20trn hitch【7】, though. To get from here to there
requires huge amounts of investment over the next few decades, to
replace old smog-belching【8】 power plants and to upgrade the
pylons【9】 and wires that bring electricity to consumers.
Normally investors like putting their money into electricity because
it offers reliable returns. Yet green energy has a dirty secret. The
more it is deployed, the more it lowers the price of power from any
source. That makes it hard to manage the transition to a carbon-free
future, during which many generating technologies, clean and dirty,
need to remain profitable if the lights are to stay on. Unless the
market is fixed, subsidies to the industry will only grow.

“What we are witnessing is the birth of a new era in solar photovoltaics
(panels),” Birol said. “We expect that solar photovoltaic capacity
growth will be higher than any other renewable technology through 2022.”

As the markets grow bigger, less electricity is being purchased directly
from the state-run utilities, meaning less profits for the traditional
power industry.

【7】hitch钩住(v),困难,故障,结(n);get hitched 结婚

“大家正在见证2个新太阳能电板时期的出生,“
Birol说,”大家估算在202二年,太阳能光板的能量会比别的任何可再生产资料源技术提升的快。“

Here, we are witnessing the decentralization of the energy sector, in
Thailand at least. Andreas Antonopolous thinks that this is one of the
“most important trends in human history.” Despite the benefits of p2p
energy markets, the fact that governments can just impose additional
fees to compensate puts a real dampener on things.

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In its report, the IEA labeled China as the world’s “undisputed
renewable growth leader”, driven by concerns about air pollution and
capacity targets that were outlined in the country’s 13th Five-Year
Plan(2016-20).

It was only a year ago that Thailand rolled back strict restrictions on
non-government solar power generation. Bangkok Post reported that the
Thai government allowed households and businesses to sell surplus energy
generated by solar panels back to EGAT last September, but I guess it
didn’t count on blockchain being adopted by the p2p energy community so
quickly.

【8】belch喷(大量)出,吐出,打嗝

IEA的报告中,中中原人民共和国被认为是社会风气上“毫无疑问的可再生产资料源的集团主“,在对环境污染和能量指标的忧虑下,可再生产资料源的成本被标明在中华夏族民共和国第①3个伍年安顿中。

译者:高旭

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The IEA report said China represents half of global solar photovoltaic
demand, and Chinese companies manufacture around 60 percent of the
world’s panels.

来源:THE NEXT WEB

【9】pylon电缆塔

IEA的告诉中还说中华表示了海内外太阳能板的必要量,中夏族民共和国制作了大千世界百分之60左右的太阳能板。

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Policymakers are already seeing this inconvenient truth as a reason to
put the brakes on renewable energy. In parts of Europe and China,
investment in renewables is slowing as subsidies are cut
back【10】
. However, the solution is not less wind and solar. It is
to rethink how the world prices clean energy in order to make better
use of it.

The IEA states that, due to the size of the market, policy developments
in China will have global implications for solar energy demand, supply,
and prices.

主要编辑:

【10】cut back (on sth)削减,减少

IEA提出,由于市镇的体量,中夏族民共和国国策的进化会对全世界的太阳能需要,供应和价格产生潜移默化。

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The report identified the growing cost of renewable subsidies and grid
integration in China as potential barriers to further growth, and noted
that China’s renewable energy policies are being modified in order to
address these challenges.

Shock to the system

At its heart, the problem is that government-supported renewable
energy has been imposed on a market designed in a different era. For
much of the 20th century, electricity was made and moved by vertically
integrated, state-controlled monopolies. From the 1980s onwards, many
of these were broken up, privatised and liberalised, so that market
forces could determine where best to invest. Today only about 6% of
electricity users get their power from monopolies. Yet everywhere the
pressure to decarbonise【11】 power supply has brought the state
creeping back into【12】 markets. This is disruptive for three
reasons. The first is the subsidy system itself. The other two are
inherent to the nature of wind and solar: their intermittency and
their very low running costs. All three help explain why power prices
are low and public subsidies are addictive.

告知中申明了中中原人民共和国的可再生能源的津贴和互联网集成的价格持续压实,会对前途的升高有潜在阻碍,并以为中夏族民共和国对可再生财富的国策相应依照这一个阻碍做出调整。

【11】decarbonise除碳,脱碳;de-去掉,除掉,……反义

China is moving away from its feed-in-tariff program to a quota system
with green certificates. The IEA states that these new policies,
together with power market reform, new transmission lines, and the
expansion of distributed generation, are expected to speed up the
deployment of solar energy.

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中夏族民共和国从停放电价项目升高到有雪青证书的定额分配制。IEA认为那些新的策略加上能量市场的重新整理,新的电子通信传输线,和分布式发电的充实会加快太阳能能源的遍布。

【1二】creep in/into sth 开头发生(或影响)

Under an accelerated case -where government policy lifts barriers to
growth-IEA analysis finds that global renewable capacity growth led by
China could be boosted by another 30 percent, totaling an extra 1,150 GW
by 2022.

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在当局政策化解发展阻碍的景况下,IEA分析发以往202二年,中夏族民共和国向导的全世界可再生财富的体量会在加码百分之三10也便是1,150千瓦。

First, the splurge【13】 of public subsidy, of about $800bn
since 2008, has distorted the market. It came about for noble reasons—
to counter climate change and prime the pump【14】 for new,
costly technologies, including wind turbines and solar
panels【15】
. But subsidies hit【16】 just as electricity
consumption in the rich world was stagnating because of growing energy
efficiency and the financial crisis. The result was a glut【17】
of power-generating capacity that has slashed the revenues utilities
earn from wholesale power markets and hence deterred investment.

Globally, falling auction prices for wind and solar projects have
contributed to the rise in new renewable energy capacity.

【13】splurge挥霍,乱花钱

从天下的角度来看,风力和太阳能项目竞价价格的回落,对升级新的可再生能源体积做出了进献。

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Last month, the United Kingdom government held a wind farm auction at
which two companies agreed to build facilities for 57.50 pounds ($76)
per megawatt hour. The price is half what new wind farms were built for
just two years ago, and means off shore wind power will be cheaper than
nuclear energy in the UK for the first time.

【14】prime the pump投资振兴

上个月,英帝国政坛进行了风力场的竞价会,两家店铺同意创设每时辰产生5七.50英镑(约合7六欧元)的百万沃特t的装置。这几个价钱已经是两年前新建筑工程厂的四分之②。意味着在英国,海上风力发电第1回比原子能发电要有利于。

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Researchers from the UK and China recently announced five new projects
to develop the”next generation” of technology in wind and wave power.

【一伍】solar panel太阳电池板

英帝国和中夏族民共和国的切磋人口前不久公告了四个新品类去钻探“下三个时日“的风能和波浪能的科学和技术。

【1陆】hit产生不良影响,危机

The UK’s Natural Environment Research Council and the Engineering and
Physical Sciences Research Council have pledged 4 million pounds in
funding during the next three years for the projects, which will also
receive funding from the  of China.

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U.K.的自然财富研讨委员会和工程及自然科学研讨委员会在今后三年会为这些类别出资4百万美金。中中原人民共和国国家自然科学基金委员会员会也会掏钱。

【一柒】glut供过于求,供应过剩

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Second, green power is intermittent. The vagaries【18】 of wind
and sun—especially in countries without favourable weather—mean that
turbines and solar panels generate electricity only part of the time.
To keep power flowing, the system relies on conventional power plants,
such as coal, gas or nuclear, to kick in【19】 when renewables
falter【20】. But because they are idle for long periods, they
find it harder to attract private investors. So, to keep the lights
on, they require public funds.

【1捌】vagaries阪上走丸

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【19】kick in开首生效

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【20】falter衰弱,衰退

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Everyone is affected by a third factor: renewable energy has
negligible or zero marginal running costs【21】—because the wind
and the sun are free. In a market that prefers energy produced at the
lowest short-term cost, wind and solar take business from providers
that are more expensive to run, such as coal plants, depressing power
prices, and hence revenues for all.

【21】marginal
costs【会计学】边际资金(指因小额变动而造成总财力的附和变更)

Gets mart

The higher the penetration of renewables, the worse these problems
get—especially in saturated markets. In Europe, which was first to
feel the effects, utilities have suffered a “lost decade” of falling
returns, stranded assets and corporate disruption. Last year,
Germany’s two biggest electricity providers, E.ON and RWE, both split
in two. In renewable-rich parts of America power providers struggle to
find investors for new plants. Places with an abundance of wind, such
as China, are curtailing【22】 wind farms to keep coal plants in
business.

【22】curtail缩减,限制

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The corollary【23】 is that the electricity system is being
re-regulated as investment goes chiefly to areas that benefit from
public support. Paradoxically, that means the more states support
renewables, the more they pay for conventional power plants, too,
using “capacity payments” to alleviate intermittency. In effect,
politicians rather than markets are once again deciding how to avoid
blackouts【24】. They often make mistakes: Germany’s support for
cheap, dirty lignite【25】 caused emissions to rise,
notwithstanding huge subsidies for renewables. Without a new approach
the renewables revolution will stall.

【2三】corollary必然的结果(或结论)

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【24】blackout 断电,停电,灯火管制,消息封锁

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【25】lignite褐煤

The good news is that new technology can help fix the problem (see
page 16). Digitalisation, smart meters【26】 and batteries are
enabling companies and households to smooth out【27】 their
demand—by doing some energy-intensive work at night, for example. This
helps to cope with intermittent supply. Small, modular power plants,
which are easy to flex up or down, are becoming more popular, as are
high-voltage grids that can move excess power around the network more
efficiently.

【二六】smart meter智能电衡量提示仪表

【27】smooth out

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【27】smooth sth (back/down/out) 使平滑,使平整

The bigger task is to redesign power markets to reflect the new need
for flexible supply and demand. They should adjust prices more
frequently, to reflect the fluctuations of the weather. At times of
extreme scarcity, a high fixed price could kick in to prevent
blackouts. Markets should reward those willing to use less electricity
to balance the grid, just as they reward those who generate more of
it. Bills could be structured to be higher or lower depending how
strongly a customer wanted guaranteed power all the time—a bit like an
insurance policy【28】. In short, policymakers should be clear
they have a problem and that the cause is not renewable energy, but
the out-of-date system of electricity pricing. Then they should fix
it.

【28】insurance policy保险单

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